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展 品 簡 介
Introduction of Exhibits  

清代皇輿全覽圖

Terrestrial Atlas of the Qing Empire during the Reign of Emperor Kangxi

c. 1719 A.D.

c. 1719 A.D.

《皇輿全覽圖》是第一幅經過實地測量的中國地圖,它以當時最新的測量方法繪製而成。 由康熙帝主持,並由傳教士白晉、雷孝思 (Jean-Baptiste Regis) ﹑杜德(Picrrc Jartoux) 和清廷學者何國宗、明安圖等合作完成。地圖繪製的年份為康熙四十七年至五十七年。地圖繪畫了中國清代的版圖。地圖顯示的範圍北至蒙古、東北至黑龍江、東南至台灣、西南至西藏。原圖已不知去向,現存的版本為銅版和木版雕印本。此文物產生的原因主要與當時的地圖不準確有關。康熙在康熙二十八年(1689年)與沙俄簽訂《尼布楚條約》時發現清廷的地圖不準確,而當時隨行的傳教士張誠把西方的《亞洲地圖》獻給康熙帝, 康熙帝因而產生了以西方方法繪製地圖的念頭。及後在康熙三十七年,傳教士巴多明上奏康熙帝指各省地圖有很多地方與真實環境不符合。因此康熙帝決心繪畫一幅更準確的地圖。 在地理學方面,十八世紀初,人們對地球的認識並不完整,正處於探索地球的時期。而當中以牛頓的「地球扁圓說」和卡西尼的「地球長圓說」這兩個說法最受爭議。《皇輿全覽圖》令牛頓的「地球扁圓說」得到確認。因傳教士在測量地圖時,發現當中經度的長度並不一致,証實了地球的形狀為扁圓形。由此可見,《皇輿全覽圖》的測量為後世地理學的發展帶來突破。 在中國方面,《皇輿全覽圖》是由多位清廷學者和傳教士合作完成。當中使用了當時最先進的西方繪畫地圖技術,測繪部份由傳教士進行。另外清廷學者在旁協助,而參與此項目的清廷學者大多有豐富的地理天文知識,例如何國宗在此地圖中就有參與測量和計算等工作。 同時此地圖引用和融合了中國以前留下的地理資料。 由此可見,此地圖是結合了中方和西方的知識而成,是中西技術合作與交流的證據。 另外,《皇輿全覽圖》開創了中國地圖學的新一頁。此地圖的繪畫在當時中國甚至世界也是前所未有的。而此次測繪地圖的成功令中國之後不少的地圖測繪也以此方法進行。

The Overview Maps of Imperial Territories is the first map of China based on actual measurements and was drawn using the most advanced surveying methods of the time. Overseen by Emperor Kangxi and completed in collaboration with missionaries such as Joachim Bouvet, Jean-Baptiste Régis, Pierre Jartoux, and Qing scholars including He Guozong and Ming Antu, the map was created between the 47th and the 57th year of Kangxi's reign. It depicted the territory of Qing, extending to Mongolia in the north, Heilongjiang in the northeast, Taiwan in the southeast, and Tibet in the southwest. Although the original map has been lost, copper plate and woodblock print versions still exist. The motivation behind this map was the inaccuracies in existing maps. Emperor Kangxi particularly noted these inaccuracies during the signing of the Treaty of Nerchinsk with Russia in 1689 (28th year of his reign). This led to the decision to produce a more accurate map using Western methods after Emperor Kangxi saw the Map of Asia presented by French missionary Jean-François Gerbillon. In the 37th year of Kangxi's reign, French missionary Dominique Parrenin submitted memorials pointing out discrepancies between provincial maps and the actual situation. Consequently, Emperor Kangxi decided to create a more accurate map. Geographically, in the early 18th century, people’s understanding of the Earth was incomplete, and theories such as Newton's "Oblate Spheroid" and Cassini's "Prolate Spheroid" were hotly debated. The Overview Maps of Imperial Territories further contributed to Newton's "Oblate Spheroid" theory. The missionaries' survey showed variations in longitude, indicating an oblate spheroidal shape. Therefore, the map marked a breakthrough in the field of future geography. In China, the Overview Maps of Imperial Territories was a collaborative effort of Qing scholars and missionaries. During the map's creation, advanced Western cartographic techniques were employed, and the surveying was carried out by the missionaries. Qing scholars, with their extensive knowledge in geography and astronomy, assisted in the project. He Guozong, one of the scholars, was also responsible for the surveying and calculations involved in the map's creation. Incorporating existing Chinese geographical information, the map is a testament to the collaboration and exchange between Chinese and Western knowledge and marked a new chapter in the history of Chinese cartography. The creation of the map was unprecedented in China and even the world at that time, and the success of the surveying led to extensive mapping and surveying in China.

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